Enlightenment of the hottest three German chemical

2022-10-14
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Enlightenment of the three German chemical giants to China

enlightenment of the three German chemical giants to China

October 13, 2015 reading: Source: National Petroleum and chemical industry | investment phase coordination; 2. It covers a wide range of manuscripts

[China paint information] for a long time, BASF, Bayer and Hirsch have been the "big three" enterprises in the German chemical industry, making great contributions to Germany's becoming the monopolist and leader of the world chemical industry. They are the epitome of the development of the German chemical industry and represent different paths of industrial development

global vision, absolute gap - the Enlightenment of the three German chemical giants to China

synthetic dyes: "the common starting point of the three" enterprises

in the history of the world chemical industry, Germany is a latecomer. In 1862, British and French scientists opened the era of synthetic dyes in the chemical industry, while the Germans could only imitate it and set up a number of enterprises producing synthetic dyes one after another. Among them are Bayer, BASF and Hirsch, which later became the "big three" of German chemical manufacturing

In 1863, Bayer company was founded in Leverkusen, Germany, mainly developing and producing aniline synthetic dyes, and began independent innovation at the same time. In 1869, grebe and Lipman, scientists in Bayer's laboratory, successfully synthesized alizarin dyes. In 1872, the company began to produce alizarin dye as a fist product, which ended the imitation of British and French synthetic dye production process by German enterprises. In 1878, scientists and entrepreneurs Bayer took indigo dye as the starting point and realized the experimental synthesis of indigo dye. In 1880, the patent for synthetic indigo dye was registered. In 1883, Bayer unveiled the atomic structure of indigo molecule through experiments. In 1885, Duesberg, a scientist of Bayer company, invented and applied for the patent of rhodopsin dye, and then developed other new dyes for industrial production

In 1865, BASF's predecessor, Baden aniline soda plant, was founded in Mannheim, a small town in southwest Germany. In 1869, BASF's chemist Carlo cooperated with Bayer's grebe and Lipman to synthesize alizarin dyes, which opened the door to the world market for BASF. Subsequently, BASF invented new dyes such as eosin, Sophora flava and azo, which established its leading position in the dye industry

In 1876, with the efforts of BASF, German chemists successfully developed and took the lead in introducing various azo dyes. In the same year, BASF successfully synthesized methyl blue and registered a patent. Beginning in 1880, BASF invested heavily in the research and development of indigo dyes, and finally achieved success in 1897, and achieved industrial production. In 1901, chemist bonne invented a new quinone reducing dye, which added more colors to the colorful dye world. BASF became the world's largest chemical manufacturer with dye as the core

In 1863, mester ruzius, the predecessor of hirchst company, was founded in hirchst town near Frankfurt, mainly producing fuchsin, synthetic alizarin and azo dyes. After the 1980s, Hirsch invested heavily in the development of synthetic indigo dyes, which was successful in 1901. Together with Bayer and BASF, Hirsch created an era of industrial production of indigo dyes

the "big three" enterprises, which started with synthetic dye series products, have successfully synthesized alizarin dyes, azo dyes, indigo and other dyes. At the same time, they have also moved from competition to cooperation

for example, in the R & D and production of synthetic alizarin dyes, in order to avoid unnecessary competition, in 1881, 9 German enterprises such as hirchst, BASF and Bayer negotiated and negotiated with a British enterprise about price and market share, and finally signed the "alizarin treaty", forming a primary cartel. In 1885, the alizarin treaty cartel disintegrated. After many discussions, in April 1900, hirchst, BASF and Bayer concluded the new alizarin treaty to form a new cartel, which made high profits at monopoly prices

synthetic dyes not only made the "big three" enterprises start successfully, but also made Germany master most of the technical patents and production processes in this field, adding wings to the development of German dye industry

in 1880, Germany's synthetic dyes accounted for 50% of the world's total output at that time, and in 1900, they accounted for about 90% of the world's total. By 1914, Germany replaced Britain and France as the center of the chemical industry, controlling 88% of the global dye industry, almost reaching an exclusive monopoly

differentiated cooperation, competition and monopoly

in the first half of the 20th century, the "big three" enterprises in the German chemical industry entered a very special stage of development. Competition and cooperation, war and monopoly have always accompanied

first, enterprises have moved from competition and cooperation to advanced monopoly. The aforementioned cartel organization is only the primary form of monopoly organization, which only involves a certain department or a certain type of products of independent enterprises. The interdependence between enterprises is very low, and vicious competition is inevitable

for this reason, Bayer advocates the establishment of a higher-level monopoly organization - syndicate. Although the participating enterprises still maintain their independence in production and law, they have been completely controlled by the head office in commercial operations. In 1904, Bayer, BASF and Agfa formed a syndicated "interest alliance", that is, the small i.g. group. The three parties shared profits, of which BASF and Bayer accounted for 43% and Agfa accounted for 14%. Hearst has formed a group organization with it as the absolute core by acquiring or combining some small and medium-sized enterprises. These two dye groups almost monopolize 90% of the world's dye market

after Germany launched the first World War in 1914, for military and war reasons, it strongly supported the merger of the small i.g. group and the Hearst group to establish a larger monopoly organization. In 1916, the big i.g group was born, which merged almost all independent small enterprises in the field of German chemical manufacturing

after the establishment of big i.g. group, there have been problems such as overstaffing, product duplication, low efficiency and so on. Reform is imperative, and trust, a senior monopoly organization, has become the best choice. On New Year's day in 1925, German i.g. faben Industrial Company (i.e. trust group) was officially established, with its headquarters in Berlin. BASF, hirchst and Bayer each accounted for 27.4% of the original capital, becoming the largest three founding companies, and all German chemical manufacturing enterprises were merged into this one enterprise. The "big three" enterprises that used to operate independently have now become three components of a trust group

i.g. faben is a huge enterprise group, which is managed by the "operating community", but each company still maintains its own independence, and each community still forms a differentiated market pattern of cooperation, competition and monopoly around a group of multi product departments with similar technologies

BASF has formed the Upper Rhine community. Although it continues to produce dye products, intermediate products, other chemicals, as well as the chemical creation of coal to oil and synthetic materials, its main business activities focus on the production of synthetic ammonia and nitrogen-containing agricultural fertilizers

the middle reaches of the Rhine community is formed with hirchst as the main body. Although it is still the drug production center, it also produces vat dye products, acetylene and acetate products, and is also responsible for the development of synthetic rubber

with Bayer as the main body, the lower Rhine community was established to continue to manufacture fine dye products, drugs, photographic chemical products and paper. Bayer's former headquarters, Leverkusen, has developed into a production base of basic chemicals and intermediate chemicals, as well as the largest dye producing area. Synthetic rubber and polymer have become the main research and development fields

under the supervision of the central office, each operating community implements autonomous management and self-control as far as possible, and cooperates and competes with other operating communities

i.g. faben industries is a large monopoly group with the nature of Konzern. No, this is because the size of nanoparticles is equivalent to the length of many characteristics of materials. It only monopolized the production of dyes, explosives, synthetic ammonia and other products in Germany, controlled 85% of the share of German chemical manufacturing industry, and was also the largest Konzern in Europe and the "Big Mac" enterprise in the world chemical manufacturing industry at that time, forming a global monopoly

during World War II, i.g. Farben inevitably got involved in the whirlpool of war. Its subsidiary BASF company used almost all "chemical creation" to meet various military needs of the Nazi government. At the end of World War II, BASF suffered heavy losses. According to statistics, 33% of its factories were completely destroyed and 61% were seriously damaged

Germany's failure in World War II means the end of the monopoly era of i.g. faben. In 1950, the Allied occupation authorities decided to dismantle i.g. Farben company, and Bayer company, hirchst company and BASF company located on the Rhine River became the third of them. More than that, the manufacturer of spring fatigue testing machine revealed the great succession company for you

in December 1951, Bayer company was re established, restoring the four production bases of the former Bayer company before 1925, namely Leverkusen, domagen, elberfield and udingen, focusing on expanding the production of its drug series and concentrating on the core competitiveness of drug research and development

In 1952, BASF was rebuilt under the name of "Baden aniline soda Co., Ltd", but it could only go back and reopen its facilities before 1925. The agricultural station established before the war and the development technology of agricultural fertilizer played a great role at this time. BASF company redeveloped a series of agricultural chemical products along this research path. At the same time, BASF achieved great success in developing plastic products such as polyethylene film for packaging by taking advantage of its pre war technological research and development advantages in high molecular polymers, such as Beilun and nylon. The raw material of polyethylene was oil and natural gas with low cost at that time. Through the connection of upstream and downstream industries, BASF entered the petrochemical industry

in 1953, Hearst completed its reorganization. In addition to drugs and fine chemicals, it also retains pharmaceutical, cellophane, cellulose derivatives, intermediate chemicals and other businesses. Later, hirchst cooperated with American enterprises to enter the production field of polymer daily necessities

in this way, the "big three" enterprises in German chemical manufacturing industry started again from the ruins of war and embarked on a new development road in the second half of the 20th century

BASF Group moved from dyes to chemical creation

in the second half of the 20th century, BASF began a new journey of chemical creation with its R & D technology and foundation for various synthetic dyes

in the 1950s, the production of polystyrene resin paved the way for BASF's overseas "chemical creation". Through joint venture and cooperation with British and American enterprises, BASF has not only explored the markets of the United States, France, Brazil and Argentina, but also entered the polymer based textile fiber product manufacturing field. Since the middle and late 1960s, BASF has successively entered Europe, North America, Asia Pacific and Africa through mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures. Since the 1980s, BASF has focused on

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